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Frequently asked questions

Lubricants

What makes Ipsa's  lubricant better than competitors?

There are quite a few lubricants on the market today, but Ipsa's specially formulated lubricants offer the following advantages :

  • technologically superior quality
  • REACH Compliant lubricants
  • Biodegradable lubricants for customers who are environment conscious
  • Our products are APEO free
  • backed by service standard which no competitor is able to achieve
  • state of the art fully automated plant ensures timely deliveries, consistency in quality and safe operating environment
  • Our fleet of delivery vehicles help our customers maintain minimum stock as we guarantee same day / next day delivery within 50 kms from our plant at Daman (India)
  • Plant capacity to produce upto 125 MT of lubricant per day
  • On site storage capacity of 1800 MT of Base Oils and 100 MT of other raw materials. 

Can I stock oil ? Will it deteriorate ?

In closed containers stocked at over 0°C, your oil will retain all its qualities. However, it is recommended that opened containers be well closed in order to avoid contamination by water.

What role do lubricants play?

Role of lubricants:

  • reduce mechanical energy losses
  • reduce wear on parts that rub together
  • protect parts against corrosion
  • lower the operating temperatures of machines
  • increase watertightness
  • do away with the need to remove impurity and dirt deposits.

Can I mix two different types of oil ?

Lubricants are always optimized to meet the requirements of international classifications (API, ACEA). However, there are many ways of formulating a specific type of lubricant. Mixing two oils that have equivalent properties will not pose a problem, but final performance cannot be guaranteed. All market oils (petrol engine or diesel, mineral or synthetic) are mixable. However, a blending of two oil qualities lower the superior quality.

Textile lubricants

What are the criteria for selecting an appropriate coning oil?

Coning oils are applied on yarns at the very end of coning, winding and texturizing processes. Needed for the following manufacturing steps, they are often offered as an added-value to the yarn. This implies that they have to ensure several benefits:

1/ Performance (regular pick-up for smooth and easy unwinding, good filament cohesion and lubrication to limit breakages and easier weaving/knitting, no oil splashing nor misting to protect machines and operators)

2/ Compatibility (adapted chemistry to cover different raw materials, no damage caused to plastic parts and machine components, self-emulsify ability for easy removal using standard washing processes)

3/ Compliance (free from alkylphenol ethoxylates and other SVHC of REACH regulations, compliance with specific textile standards such as Oekotex standard 100 to protect people as well as the environment, ultimately biodegradable solutions for better sustainability).

What are the criteria for selecting an appropriate needle   oil?

During the knitting process, needle oils are needed to lubricate the knitting machines, especially the stitch forming spare parts that are exposed to mechanical wear as well as textile contact. This means that they must have several benefits:

1/ Mechanical protection (proven efficiency following international method for better protection of any mechanical parts and reduced maintenance costs)

2/ Compatibility (no damage caused to plastic parts, electronic components or machine paints for long-lasting machines)

3/ Compliance (free from alkylphenol ethoxylates and other SVHC of REACH regulations, compliance with specific textile standards such as Oekotex standard 100 to protect people as well as the environment, high oxidative stability for long-lasting performances)

Why do we need special lubricants for the textile industry?

The textile industry is one of the largest industries worldwide and there are multiple production steps for the manufacture of textile goods. For productivity reasons, such steps have to be done at the maximum speed which is regularly increased through the evolution of techniques and machinery. However higher speeds mean higher constraints and yarns have to be protected. Depending on their final field of application, textile products also have to fulfil specific requirements from raw materials to finished goods. Textile lubricants are therefore needed to protect the processed materials while coping with the inner requirements of their end-uses and industries.

Biodegradable Oils

What exactly does "biodegradable" mean?

The term "biodegradable" denotes a product's ability to be broken down by natural organisms (bacteria, algae, mushrooms) into non-hazardous products (water, CO2) that can then be recycled by nature itself. The term "bio" also refers to a product's very low eco-toxicity levels as far as living organisms are concerned (measured by tests on algae, fish and daphnia). However, just because a product carries this label does not mean that it can be deliberately discharged into the environment. The term only guarantees that the negative effects on the environment will be kept to a minimum in the event of lost lubrication or accidental discharge.

The level of a lubricant's biodegradability can be measured by standard and standardised tests. The benchmark test that various eco-labels have chosen is the OECD 301 B biodegradability test.

What is a biodegradable lubricant?

Biodegradability is defined as the ability of a molecule to be degraded biologically i.e. by the action of biological organisms.

Biodegradable oils are combinations of selected biodegradable bases (vegetable oils, rape, sunflower, synthetic esters) which are non-toxic, and special additives which give them their desired properties. Needless to say, the choice of base oil is fundamental and will determine the oil's performance and its service life.

What differences in performance are there for biodegradable lubricants?

Because of the natural properties of esters and the specific additives developed for these oils, biodegradable lubricants surpass mineral oils when it comes to viscosity/temperature behaviour, total shear strength and anti-wear properties. Under the right operating conditions, using biodegradable oils can therefore lead to a significant increase in intervals between oil changes compared with standard mineral oils.

Does biodegradable mean no impact on the environment?

No, biodegradable oils are used to reduce the impact on the environment. Any spillage of lubricant into the environment must be cleaned up as quickly as possible whether the oil is biodegradable or not. The use of biolubricants is currently the best alternative but does not legitimate irresponsible behaviour.

Base Oils and additives

What  is a White Oil?

White oils are highly refined mineral oils that are extremely pure, stable, colorless, odorless, non-toxic and chemically inert. These attributes make them perfect for any application that values these properties, such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and chemical processing.

The term "white oil" is a misnomer, in that they are not white at all, but crystal clear. White oils can be produced from a variety of feedstocks, depending on the process used. These starting materials include conventional base stocks for the older acid treatment process to Vacuum Gas Oils (VGO) for the more currently widely used two stage hydrotreating method. Both processes produce colorless, odorless, tasteless oils where all components that might have any detrimental effects on their end usage, such as aromatics, sulphur or other impurities, have essentially been removed, resulting in a pure and thermally stable product.

Thanks to these characteristics white oils are widely used in textile, pharmaceutical and medicinal applications, cosmetics, and the plastic and food industries.

How are Base Oils produced?

The first step is the atmospheric distillation of crude oil. This transformational phase separates out the various components that make up the crude oil into compounds of different densities. A whole variety of oil products can be separated out - from the lightest to the heaviest: gases, petrol, diesel and then heavier distillates, with atmospheric residue at the bottom of the column.

This atmospheric residue then undergoes a second manufacturing process: vacuum distillation. This is similar to the previous process, except that it is carried out in a vacuum. The aim is to separate the residue and the heavy distillates according to density category. Once these various distillates have been identified, they are subjected to various treatments: Removing their paraffins and waxes will prevent them from congealing at room temperature.
The products obtained are base oils of varying viscosity indices, such as 85NS, for example which has a viscosity index of 15 mm-/s at 40°C (mm-/s is the unit of measurement for viscosity that is used for oils that contain the number 46 in their designation).

These base oils are then assembled together and mixed with additives in order to obtain the final oil that is then stored, transported and packaged into drums or containers or sold in bulk.

What are the most commonly used additives in industrial lubricants?

A lubricant is made up of base oils which can be derived from minerals (from oil refining) or synthetic oils. Performance additives are required in order to give the lubricant certain performance levels.

The most commonly used additives in industrial lubricants include antioxidants, extreme pressure additives, additives to improve the viscosity index, anti-wear additives, anti-rust additives, detergents, dispersants, anti-foaming additives, etc.

This list is very far from being exhaustive - these are simply the most commonly used additives. Machines nowadays require more and more functions from a lubricant. This is why lubrication has become such a technical field where expertise can result in significant productivity gains.

When is it appropriate to use a synthetic oils? What is important to know about synthetic oils?

Unlike "mineral" oils which are manufactured by distilling crude oil and then subjecting it to special processing, "synthetic" oils are manufactured in the chemicals sectors by adding together identical molecules in order to obtain oils of varying levels of viscosity.

The main synthetic oils are synthetic esters that are often used to create biodegradable lubricants, polyalphaolefins (whose chemical composition makes them very similar to mineral oils) and polyalkylene (glycols which have improved lubricating capacities).

The main advantages of mineral oils - apart from the special benefits derived from their molecular composition (biodegradability for synthetic esters, for example) - include a better ability to withstand ageing (meaning a longer service life) and the fact that they can be used over wider temperature ranges, giving them more multigrade properties than traditional mineral oils.

Cutting Oils

How important is coolant in band sawing?

The term coolant implies that drawing off heat is its only purpose.  Cutting fluid is a more precise term.  Sawing brings the work and saw teeth together under heat and pressure, and that can weld the two.  Components of cutting fluids include additives that prevent chip welding, lubricants that reduce the amount of heat generated, and water that draws away much of the heat that is generated.   Use a good, heavy-duty cutting fluid.  Get a refractometer to check and maintain the fluid mix ratio according to the manufacturer’s recommendation.

Can one metal working fluid be used on top of another metal working fluid?

We strongly recommend performing a “clean and dump” prior to using new coolant over existing coolant.  However, if the customer does not want to do this, then the following questions and answers need to be taken into consideration before dumping new coolant over existing coolant:

  • Does the customer have poor coolant housekeeping habits?
  • Do you detect an odor from the sump?
  • Is there significant tramp oil?

If you answered yes to these questions then a clean and dump needs to be performed.  Otherwise, the new coolant will not perform properly.

NOTE:  Dumping new product over existing product has to be in the same category.  You can only do this if you are going from a synthetic to a synthetic; semi-synthetic to a semi-synthetic; or soluble oil to a soluble oil.  

What’s the right way to replace lost cutting fluid?

Keep in mind that you are replacing straight mix lost to spilling as well as water lost to evaporation.  The mix you add will be less concentrated than the original, generally by about half.  Use a refractometer to guide you in mixing the make-up fluid and to confirm the end result.

How do you control bacteria and mold?

​​The best way to control bacteria and mold is to consistently maintain your systems.  This is done by monitoring the concentration at least a minimum of twice weekly.  Skim off the tramp oil and make sure the fluid is aerated throughout the system.  If this is not done it is best for the end user to resort to a biocide or fungicide depending on the type of biological growth present.

What causes dermatitis when using metalworking fluids?

Ninety-five percent of dermatitis cases are the result of elevated coolant concentration.  High concentrations have a higher alkalinity level; therefore causing irritation on skin that comes in contact with the fluid.  Dermatitis can also be caused by bacteria in a sump.  It is for these reasons that it is important to stress good maintenance practices.

What causes mix instability in soluble oils?

​​Mix instability can occur when the operator adds the water to the coolant instead of adding the coolant to the water.  In soluble oils this causes an invert emulsion that can interfere with the coolant working properly for your application. 

What is a refractometer?

​A refractometer is a hand held instrument that measures how light is refracted through a liquid.  This reading is then converted to the concentration of the metalworking fluid within the sump.   It is important to check the concentration levels, as low refractometer readings mean you lean your alkalinity reserve causing rusting that will encourage bacteria.

What causes foam?

​Foam can be caused by soft water, high-pressure machining, soaps or contaminants within the system. 

What causes corrosion?

​Corrosion is caused when the concentration of the metalworking fluid is too weak or too lean.  Contamination levels and plant environment (humidity) can also cause corrosion.  Corrosion can also happen when parts are handled improperly.  As soon as corrosion is noticed, intervention is necessary to determine the cause and proper corrective action.

Can I use bleach to clean my sump?

Bleach combines with the calcium and magnesium in water leaving behind salt, which is corrosive and exacerbates rust.
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